Wills: The Cornerstone of Your Estate Plan
Wills allow you to nominate a guardian for your minor children
In many states, a will is your only means of stating who you want to act as legal guardian for your minor children if you die. You can name a personal guardian, who takes personal custody of the children, and a property guardian, who manages the children's assets. This can be the same person or different people. The probate court has final approval, but courts will usually approve your choice of guardian unless there are compelling reasons not to.
Wills allow you to nominate an executor
A will allows you to designate a person as your executor to act as your legal representative after your death. An executor carries out many estate settlement tasks, including locating your will, collecting your assets, paying legitimate creditor claims, paying any taxes owed by your estate, and distributing any remaining assets to your beneficiaries. Like naming a guardian, the probate court has final approval but will usually approve whomever you nominate.
Wills specify how to pay estate taxes and other expenses
The way in which estate taxes and other expenses are divided among your heirs is generally determined by state law unless you direct otherwise in your will. To ensure that the specific bequests you make to your beneficiaries are not reduced by taxes and other expenses, you can provide in your will that these costs be paid from your residuary estate. Or, you can specify which assets should be used or sold to pay these costs.
Wills can create a testamentary trust
You can create a trust in your will, known as a testamentary trust, that comes into being when your will is probated. Your will sets out the terms of the trust, such as who the trustee is, who the beneficiaries are, how the trust is funded, how the distributions should be made, and when the trust terminates. This can be especially important if you have a spouse or minor children who are unable to manage assets or property themselves.
Wills can fund a living trust
A living trust is a trust that you create during your lifetime. If you have a living trust, your will can transfer any assets that were not transferred to the trust while you were alive. This is known as a pourover will because the will "pours over" your estate to your living trust.
Wills can help minimize taxes
Your will gives you the chance to minimize taxes and other costs. For instance, if you draft a will that leaves your entire estate to your U.S. citizen spouse, none of your property will be taxable when you die (if your spouse survives you) because it is fully deductible under the unlimited marital deduction. However, if your estate is distributed according to intestacy rules, a portion of the property may be subject to estate taxes if it is distributed to heirs other than your U.S. citizen spouse.
Assets disposed of through a will are subject to probate
Probate is the court-supervised process of administering and proving a will. Probate can be expensive and time consuming, and probate records are available to the public. Several factors can affect the length of probate, including the size and complexity of the estate, challenges to the will or its provisions, creditor claims against the estate, state probate laws, the state court system, and tax issues. Owning property in more than one state can result in multiple probate proceedings. This is known as ancillary probate. Generally, real estate is probated in the state in which it is located, and personal property is probated in the state in which you reside at the time of your death.
Will provisions can be challenged in court
Although it doesn't happen often, the validity of your will can be challenged, usually by an unhappy beneficiary or a disinherited heir.
Some common claims include:
- You lacked testamentary capacity when you signed the will
- You were unduly influenced by another individual when you drew up the will
- The will was forged or was otherwise improperly executed
- The will was revoked
Be sure to discuss these topics and any other questions you may have with your Estate Attorney and Accountant. As always, Portfolio Solutions® will be here to help! Please contact your dedicated Portfolio Solutions® Financial Advisor today by calling (248) 689-1550. Not a current client, but ready to get started? Click here to schedule a phone consultation to learn more about Portfolio Solutions® and how we can serve you!
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